Why French Bulldogs
cost so much???
The million dollar
Well... in a nutshell the
reason why.... "FRENCHIE PUPPIES ARE EXTREMELY HARD TO BREED ***And***
French Bulldogs have to be
Artificially Inseminated, which means Progesterone testing to wait for
ovulation, blood tests, etc... For the safety of the mother, just like
millions of human mothers, they need c-sections... Which means lots of
temperature taking daily and worrying about the "right time" to take the
babies out of the oven. Take them out too early, the lungs are not developed
and the puppies will die, too soon also means many times momma's milk won't
drop, which mean bottle feeding around the clock. Take them out late and
the puppies will die in the birth canal or detach from the placenta, they
suffocate and die. Late night emergency c-sections, complications, mother
can die in surgery or after, etc. etc... If you are a human mother
and you have given birth you know all the complications involved with a
delivery... whether natural or a c-section, many complications can arise.
Does it mean humans are no longer going to have children because of possible
complications? Of course not... so this breed is worth every bit of trouble
if you are a dedicated breeder. Another issue is if the "mothering
instincts" don't kick in due to the c-section, that means round the clock
bottle feeding and stimulating puppies to use the bathroom (they cannot
do this on their own)... And after all this, you get an average of
3 puppies per litter... It can be 1 puppy or can be 5 or 6... but those
are rare, it's usually 2-4, which is why I say the average is 3.
A breeder of larger dogs like Golden Retrievers have 10-12
per litter, it could take 5-7 French Bulldog litters
to get that many puppies... think about it..... that reason alone makes
them more expensive, they have very few pups... but there are other
reasons as well.... If interested in more details Read On....
Although healthier then their
English Bulldog cousin, French Bulldogs are prone to health problems: breathing
difficulties, back problems etc... The best way to TRY to avoid some health issues
is by finding a reputable breeder that not just SHOWS their dogs in conformation,
but cares about the health of the parents which is more important than
taking your dog to a show... After all judges have different opinions and
there is a lot of politics involved in the dog show world. You can't
ever guarantee any puppy will be 100% healthy it's entire life, no breeder
can guarantee nothing will ever happen to that puppy. Remember there is
no crystal ball, if a breeder gives you all these false promises RUN...run
the other way. A dog is a like a human, sure genetics play a role in how
they turn out, but anything can happen regardless and breeders should
not make it all sound like rainbows and roses. Ever heard of 2 healthy
parents who have a toddler or young child diagnosed with cancer... it's
life, things happen so it's best to be safer and go with a breeder who
does things the right way and raised the parents the right way.
French Bulldogs are hard to
breed and as mentioned have small litters. As I said Frenchies usually
"average" 3-4 puppies per litter. Most times when you see that a French Bulldog
had 7-9 puppies in one litter, that is NOT the norm for American Bred AKC Standard Frenchies,
although it can happen its never been a normal occurrence in USA AKC STANDARD FRENCHIES.,.
Usually when you see Frenchies with litters that big, they are *usually* from Frenchies with Imported bloodlines or maybe some that have been potentially mixed with Bullys, as many Bully breeders are now into Frenchies and Bullys already have Frenchies in them since Bullys are a mixture of multiple bully breeds. Imported Frenchies can be bigger ... many reach 40 pounds or more (though the breeders won't tell you this). This is why most times when you see these huge litters they are from NON-STANDARD AKC FRENCHIES. AKC Standard French Bulldog litters are for the most part pretty small.
Expect to pay an *average* of 5000 for an AKC Registered *Born In the USA* French Bulldog AKC Champion Sired Puppy companion. If you'd like an AKC Frenchie Puppy from actual AKC Champion bloodlines usually average 5000 to 6000 are the prices I've seen these days.... Male or Female, Show or Pet, Limited or Full Registration, Certain Circumstances, Restrictions or clauses ALL play a factor on the final price. I feel the way a breeder handles the Adoption matters also. You cannot compare a breeder who cuts you off, hardly sends pics, just wants to make *a sale* the same as a breeder who dedicates hours with the families. Sending updates, tons of info, pics and videos, etc... Trust me, it takes up a lot of time when you do it the right way. Not a sales pitch, just facts.
IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN ONE OF OUR PUPPIES VISIT AVAILABULL PAGE, FILL OUT QUESTIONNAIRE if we have a puppy there you like and we go from there. Our pups range from 5000 to 5500 as of 2021. The care we put into our babies goes over and beyond what many do, its a 24/7 job!!! All out MOMS AND DADS have their DNA on file with AKC and AKC DNA verified. Not DNA for color as you see with Non AKC Standard Colors. When I say DNA on file I mean with AKC, not from Animal Genetics checking for colors and patterns, they are DNA’d with AKC and parentage verification is available for all our puppies. When you see the term *Champion Sired* that means the DAD IS AN ACTUAL AKC SHOW CHAMPION... not random bully shows people go to these days with non standard colored Frenchies and Bullies. When you see shows with NON STANDARD COLORED FRENCHIES those are not AKC Shows and they are not AKC wins.
All our pups are from AKC Champion Bloodlines and either dad or grandparents are AKC Champions. Many breeders also charge more for girls. We paid good money for our foundation dogs and it was well spent many many years ago and I got maybe a handful of photos from the breeders before we brought them home and why I provide so many photos and details when our puppies are Adopted. I know the feeling of waiting for your puppy. We keep in touch throughout the entire process via email (OR Instagram now) with updates, stories, details, photos and videos. If you have Instagram you can follow us to see alll the kiddos in our home from day one, all our adults live with us in our home... see our Instagram Highlights and Stories. We are not a kennel. All our dogs are FREE RANGE AND CAGE FREE !!! Get it ha ha.... We will be there for the life of the puppy and HAVE MANY MANY REFERENCES aka our “Frenchie Families” that we have known for 8-9-10,, 12, 14 YEARS!!!! and MANY that come back for 2nds and thirds and some even have 4 and one family has 5... All Pets/Companions. It's important to build a good relationship with the breeder of your puppy.
We will not ship a puppy EVER ( NO EXCEPTIONS )... We must meet you face to face if you want one of our babies. We deliver to the Airport of course, what I mean is ship them alone or use a middle man.. Shipping puppies/dogs alone
as Cargo is NOT possible. Look on our[Shipping
Info] page to see how simple the process is.
We understand not every show quality dog will finish their AKC Championship,
we've had AKC Pointed AKC Champion Sired Studs who did not do well on the road with handlers and therefore had to retire, but they're AKC Champion
Sired and AKC Pointed at least. So in my opinion if you are going to spend money on a puppy, at least make sure the Champions are
up close in their pedigree, WHICH DOES MATTER even if you want just a pet.
There are many french bulldog puppies out there for 5000+ and neither the parents or grandparents are AKC Champions. Breeders of so called "rare
(fad/exotic) colors", which frankly they are not really rare at all, not anymore because they are LITERALLY EVERYWHERE these days lol, hop on Instagram, they are a dime a dozen... Those Frenchies are just non AKC standard colors, also known as *disqualification* colors, but definitely no longer rare.... I believe these days what is *rare* are actual breeders who are breeding just AKC Standard Colors. Those breeding non AKC Standard Frenchie Colors are charging an average of 7000-10,000 per puppy, obviously not from AKC Champions since they cannot be shown. I have seen them from 5000 to 30,000 thousand, yes 30k.... I saw a frenchie puppy for sale on a website for 30 thousand dollars because it was "rare".... Sorry no puppy *of any breed* is worth 30 grand and none are rare anymore either, everyone has them...JUST MY OPINION people... we are all entitled to one! This is not personal with anyone! Doesn't mean I won't pet your Frenchie or think it's not cute or have something against you because you have a non AKC Standard Frenchie. I find many non Standard Frenchie cute, handsome, great looking... I like alll dogs people. I actually really like the ones with tan points (like a Dobie or Rottie), we don't own or breed them because they go against the AKC Standard for the French Bulldog Breed. If you have a breed why go against the Standard of the actual Registry that you register your dogs with? Doesnt make sense to me at all.... that's all.
do things the right way it takes A LOT of money, time, blood, sweat and
tears (when you lose one) to raise a litter of Frenchies properly AND TO
MAINTAIN YOUR ADULT FRENCHIES THE RIGHT WAY... It's not just the expense
of raising puppies, but it take a lot of money to raise the parents the
right way. Do your research on what has happened to those who have
bought cheap French Bulldogs from whatever background. Look on our
INFO] page and [PURCHASE
TIPS] page to help you. Male or Female, Show or Pet, Limited
or Full Registration, Certain Circumstances, Restrictions or clauses ALL
play a factor on the price!!!! AKC Champion bred French Bulldogs are worth
their cost when you get them from a breeder who does things the right way
of course... You should expect the breeder to be there for you with
help when needed. As the saying goes... You get what you pay for!!!
Love this saying.... "The ramifications of poor quality lingers long after
the thrill of a bargain is forgotten"........ A Well Bred Frenchie is NOT
Expensive, it's PRICELESS!!! I don't feel I need to say these things, but
this is for those who question the cost of the breed or want to get a well
bred /non-imported USA AKC Frenchie puppy for less than 3500 ... sorry maybe a French
bulldog should not be the dog you choose. If finances are an issue visit
the French Bulldog Rescue websites and consider a rescue before you resort
to buying a cheap Frenchie online ESPECIALLY OFF INSTAGRAM!!!! Dont get me started on Instagram. I was oblivious to what was happening to the breed until we joined Insta in Spring 2018.
BYB's "Back Yard Breeders"
are people who own dogs "with or without papers" and they decide they want
puppies for fun or because they think it's easy money so they breed whatever
dog "with or without papers" and sell these pups to the general public.
They sell them for less money than REPUTABLE BREEDERS and people buy them
because they do not know any better and they do NOT offer Health Guarantees
against Congenital diseases. They do NOT offer LIFETIME mentoring , and they
WILL NOT take a dog back for any reason. Good Luck trying to reach them
if you ever have a problem with your puppy. They typically just care about
the $$$. You may save money going through a BYB, but you will probably
end up paying more in Vet Bills in the long run. BYB's do not care about
their puppies for the most part. Many have tons and tons of puppies year
round so who cares if 1 or 2 or 5 babies die, there are more on the way.
BYB's lack the knowledge of adequate dog health care... just ask them questions
and see if they can answer them. Many of these BYB's do love their
dogs and are breeding because they think their "FLUFFY" is so cute, and
their neighbor's dog "MAX" is so handsome and wouldn't they make some cute
puppies... Believe me French Bulldogs are VERY hard to breed THE RIGHT
WAY and it is a very difficult breed to just get into for the heck of it
or solely for monetary reasons or because someone wants to experience what
its like to raise a litter or they want their children to experience having
a litter. Take your child to the zoo and let them enjoy their pet and do
not risk their pets life by breeding it if you do not know what you are
doing... Just spay/neuter them and leave the breeding to those who do it
the right way.
A reputable breeder doesn't
dedicate their life to their dogs solely for money TRUST ME... they
do it for the love of that breed FIRST and most money made usually goes
to paying for Vet bills, raising the puppies and to pay what it cost to
keep multiple adult dogs in adequate conditions. They are your life,
your life revolves around them. If you are a breeder who truly cares and
does things the right way, your life will be your dogs. We have not been
on a vacation as a couple in over 20 years. It's all about the dogs. A
plethora of money is put into these dogs. Yearly expenses are astronomical
and all the "time" invested in raising dogs is time one CANNOT spend
with friends and especially loved ones. When you are a breeder who does
things the right way, your life is the dogs, period.... Vacations and holidays
are pretty much nonexistent. When you provide adequate vet care, quality
nutrition AND real food, toys, treats, handling fees, the 5 hour drive
and time spent going to the Airport, the 5 hour drive to the Vet for c-sections
because you live very rural.... the hours and hours AND HOURS spent online
creating a huge website with very slow internet speed, hours AND HOURS
emailing people who have question after questions...., hours taking hundreds
of photos, cropping, loading, emailing to the new owners... loading videos...
believe me.... the cost of my puppies is often just enough to break
even for all the money and TIME put into the
dogs, puppies and everything that has to do with caring for them.
A reputable breeder can surely make more money HOURLY working at a McDonalds
or Burger King if you multiply all the HOURS of care and work that
goes into everything having to do with raising the dogs and puppies the
If you buy a Frenchie puppy that
has a TATTOO
it's 99.9% of the time an IMPORT.
are a whole other story...
To read about Imports. This page is worth reading. There are many websites
out there breeding and selling these puppies. To the novice or someone
looking for a PET, they would not know any better. This is something everyone
should be leery of.
Just some of the costs/time
of breeding alone, this does not include raising or showing and care for
Progesterone Testing to
determine Ovulation, sometimes daily.
Stud Fees (If Needed)
Natural Holistic Feed,
Meat, Supplements, Vitamins, Homecooking
C-Sections which can cost
up to $2500 on Emergency
24 hour care of Newborns
which can include bottle feeding, tube feeding, cleaning to stimulate to
pee and poop, etc...
Mom's after care and staple
NO SLEEP FOR DAYS-WEEKS
Cleaning, laundry and more
cleaning and laundry
Milk for Momma's or bottle
Hours and Hours of Picture/Video
taking and emailing as mentioned above
Gas and Time spent at the
Vet for puppy exams
Gas and Time spent driving
to the Airport
A reputable breeder should
pay all expenses for the Vet Visit for the Puppy Wellness Exams/Shots/Dewormings
and not charge the new owner
Puppy Gift Bags with toys
Hours printing information
and hours making the informational and detailed Folders the new owners
AKC Registration fees,
Foxy 8 weeks Preg
after all this... Your girl does not get pregnant or she has a ONE
(1) Puppy Litter... or the momma goes early and all the puppies die. Or...
the puppies catch a cold from a draft, now you need antibiotics and possible
Vet intervention, IV Fluids, Nebulizer treatments, etc... You also have.
Puppy fading syndrome which means the puppies just fade away even after
all the time and money spent to save them... Like with human mothers,
French Bulldog mothers can die during their c-section, after all it is
a surgery.... I can go on............... You do it THE RIGHT WAY, then
tell me it's easy or cheap. Being a pet owner of one or two dogs
is a responsibility as it is... now multiply that times 100 and maybe,
just maybe the average person might understand what it takes to be a responsible
and dedicated French Bulldog Breeder. Far from easy, trust me.
the French Bulldog:
It looks like fun huh? For
those that don't know the majority of French Bulldog cannot breed naturally
and they cannot have puppies naturally.
Why can't French Bulldogs
While some French Bulldog
males can mate naturally, for the most part they are too stocky, legs not
long enough and short backed to be able to adequately "reach" to breed
the bitch. While all attempts are there, they simply cannot "REACH"...
it defies physics. SO... beware of those claiming to have "natural
breeders", take a look at the conformation, "most times" these are long
legged, not conformationally correct males, too long in the body probably.
Don't get me wrong some of these boys are adamant, but for ONE that can
get it done, there are 100 others than cannot and why have them run out
of breath or exert themselves when it can be done artificially QUICKER
and EASIER. For those who ask the question then "why breed these
dogs"...... Well WHY NOT I say.... There is HUMAN INTERVENTION for
many human couples who cannot have children on their own. There are
many women who are artificially inseminated and if it wasn't for HUMAN
INTERVENTION there would be many devastated women in this world who cannot
have children on their own or "naturally" if you will. Some may think
it's silly to compare dogs to humans... but I am just giving an example
that humans help bring human babies into this world, it doesn't happen
naturally for the most part even if the parents conceived naturally most
women have epidurals which is NOT natural and is human intervention to
make things QUICKER and EASIER on mom.. so is it wrong for humans to intervene
with dogs, absolutely NOT. It's not wrong, its simply helping what
can't be done naturally in all animals ... and after all humans are species
of animals.... JUST MY OPINION :)
Why can't the mother have
For those that don't know
the majority of French Bulldog females cannot whelp (have puppies) on their
own, they need c-sections. Why? Because in a cobby, well proportioned,
well put together, French Bulldog, their Pelvis is simply not wide enough
to be able to pass the Big Headed Bulldog Babies. Again like many
human mothers who cannot have babies naturally because their body just
can't pass a baby or doesn't dilate, etc... The French Bulldogs PEAR
shape body we all love, is what makes it almost impossible for the female
to have puppies naturally. When you hear of French Bulldog mothers who
"free whelp" please know that it is VERY RARE. Sure, it can happen
IT IS VERY RARE I stress. And why take the risk? Most times also those
breeders who attempt to let the mothers have puppies naturally, if for
some miracle she is able to pass them, she will have 1 or 2 on her own,
then she stops pushing cause she's tired and ends up needing a c-section
anyway. Now the puppy or puppies in there are stressed and in danger of
dying. It's also a HUGE risk to your bitch to be put under anesthesia while
tired and stressed out. It's just not worth it. We have NEVER free
whelped a French Bulldog litter and do not plan to.
Bottle Feeding Pups 3 weeks old.
This doesn't happen like this though, I set them up for the photo....
I wish it was this easy.... the
bottle falls over, you have to hold it and do one by one....
for French Bulldog Newborns:
Frenchie Puppies are so cute,
how hard can it be???? Oh believe me... it's a lot of fun and they are
PRECIOUS indeed, but easy is not a word that goes hand in hand with raising
French Bulldogs the right way. There is more work in it than working a
9-5 job. The day is not over at 5pm, it's round the clock care for the
dogs, but especially with newborns. Checking weights multiple times
a day to make sure they are thriving adequately, keeping mom well fed,
keeping whelp area warm and clean, loads of laundry, etc... I can go on
and on because the work NEVER ENDS!!!!!!!!
Because French Bulldog Females
do not give birth naturally their "MOTHERING INSTINCTS" pretty much are
nonexistent at first. While you can have a 1st time Frenchie Mommy take
care of her babies right away, for the most part THEY DO NOT until a few
days later, which means ROUND the clock care at the most critical time
of a newborn puppy, which means NO SLEEP. Breeders that say otherwise
are sometimes trying to paint a pretty picture to impress.... Or... they
think if they say the truth someone will not want to purchase their puppy.
Well... a bad mother has nothing to do with the dog itself or the temperament
of the dog... a momma dog who just had puppies is not in the right state
of mind. Some girls get very anxious, some girls get nervous, some girls
just have no clue... It's all part of the process. When other dogs naturally
WHELP their litter and help with the birthing process they are more inclined
to have the mothering instinct kick in faster. And with that said... some
mothers who whelp NATURALLY can also be horrible mothers, it's not just
French Bulldogs or English Bulldogs or any flat face breed who need c-sections,
it happens, they are animals after all. Like human mothers who do not bond
to their babies right away...
Nursing puppies in car on the way
home from the csection vet that is almost 3 hours away
With this said...
What goes into raising these
tiny beautiful, smooshed face dogs? A lot of TIME AND MONEY, SWEAT and
TEARS when you lose one. The first 7 days of a Newborns life is the most
critical, especially the first 24 hours. You get little to NO SLEEP at
all. Reputable breeders will sleep right next to the whelp area.
I have a camera on them at all times so I am always watching mom and babies.
I check on the puppies all day and all night. If the puppies came early
and mom has no milk, guess what? You have to bottle feed babies every 2
hours the first week of life or until mom's milk drops. If she runs out
of milk early, breeder has to bottle feed until babies start to eat at
4 weeks old or so.
Do you know that puppies up
until 2 weeks of age cannot poop or pee on their own? Yes, you read that
right. That means if mom does not stimulate (lick) the puppies to make
them urinate or defecate, guess who is doing that??? Yes, me. Remember
what I said about Frenchie moms and their mothering instincts? Lots of
baby wipes, cotton balls and laundry go into raising a Frenchie litter
not to mention poop on hands and places you don't even want to know lol....
hey... it goes with the territory.
Another momma nursing in the car
on the way home from C-Section
We don't have many puppies
because it's a lot of work. The puppies we do have are raised in by us.
They are not sent or raised by a CARE TAKER or a PUPPY NANNY, they are
24/7 with us from the moment they are born, well... after we get back from
the Vet that is. We help dry the puppies once they are delivered from mom's
belly via c-section and from that moment on, they are under my supervision
at all times. I know my puppies inside and out before they leave to their
new homes. My puppies do not step one paw outdoors until AFTER 8 weeks
of age AFTER they are vaccinated. I can't understand when I see newborns
babies on these websites who have not even opened their eyes and are laying
on a grass outside somewhere in a photo. Or puppies under 6 weeks of age
that are outside clearly ... crazy and risky. After everything put
into getting these babies in this world, there is no way I am going to
risk their lives.
homemade towel bottle holders only work for about 3 minutes lol... wish
it was that easy, but anyone who has ever seen puppies nursing know they
don't stay on the same nipple and they move around a lot and search for
a new nipple... but at least I can take a photo quickly like this... it
is very cute after all :)
Quality Pup vs. Show Quality Pup
is another question and misunderstanding.....
people believe a "Pet Quality Puppy" is in some way inferior to a "Show
Quality Puppy" and that couldn't be further from the truth. There is no
difference between a Pet or Show puppy besides "CONFORMATION". When people
say "OH I ONLY WANT A PET", like if they want to settle for worst of the
litter, it makes no sense. In all honesty that "PET Quality" puppy may
be the "BEST" one in the litter as far as personality and looks, it may
just have a "cosmetic conformation flaw" that would prevent it from
becoming a titled "Show Champion", but there is nothing inferior about
the puppy. By "conformation flaws" it could be something as minor
as being a little longer in the body than what the judges like or not having
enough "pigment" around the nose or eyes, etc.. Heck the dog could
be perfect and just not like the lead and therefore not make a good show
dog. So while Show pups are worth more, its not by much. It costs the same
to raise a pet puppy as it does a show puppy. When you purchase one as
a "pet only" the same amount of time, sweat, money, hard work, dedication
and love has been invested to get that "pet" puppy into this world, make
sure it lives through that Newborn Critical Stage, fed and raised the same,
etc... The majority of "Show Quality" pups are sold as "JUST
PETS" anyway, so in actuality they are all "PETS", they just aren't all
"Show Quality". So... whether pet or show, all our puppies and those from
Reputable breeders are raised and treated equally... that is the point!!!!
vs. American Champion Bred
people wonder the difference.....
for the most part many of the Imports from UNETHICAL Breeders turn out
huge, 40lbs is not unheard of and they certainly do not meet the Standards.
They have a long nose or what some people refer to "out at the nose" instead
of the beautiful smooshed in face they are supposed to have. The tails
and bodies are usually longer. They have longer legs. And basically they
just do not look like what a French Bulldog is supposed to look like. This
is why many websites do not show the parents photos only the puppy photos.
These Imports mostly have hyper and unsteady temperaments and just not
what a French Bulldogs should be. If you think it doesn't matter where
the puppy came from as long as you can afford it and you only "WANT A PET",
then buy one of those cheap imports. The only way someone can sell a
French Bulldog Puppy for that price is because they Imported it for $200
or so. You'll end up regretting it. I have heard it time and time
does it work?
I am no expert, but from everything I have read and been told...
Mills from outside the US, like in Hungary, Russia, etc,,, sell puppies
in masses to people in the United States. We have received those emails
ourselves from these BROKERS. They want you to buy 8-10 puppies say for
$200 a piece.... Like package deals... These Importers will buy these puppies
in groups and then have the puppies shipped here and re-sell them for $1500
-$2000... without having any idea who the parents are, how they are bred,
etc.. They do not even know the puppy's real date of birth. They can be
selling you a puppy they claim is 9 weeks old and it's really 6 weeks old,
because they take them away from the mother early to ship overseas and
sell it. It's all about money. There is no time or effort spent raising
dogs and puppies from so called breeders who buy these Imported Puppies,
it's a business and they have NOTHING invested in the puppy. Look at the
profit when they sell this $200 import for $1500. When people think
they are getting a bargain, trust me it will end up costing you more in
Medical Bills down the road. Most French Bulldogs in rescues are Imports,
you can see it in their looks... I believe so anyway.
are different when compared to American Frenchies. Like I said, they
are usually LARGER so when you see a website bragging how their French
Bulldog females whelp naturally its probably because THEY ARE IMPORTS.
Make sure you see photos of the mother and even then you don't know if
they are being honest. This is why we provide photos of the mother pregnant,
photos of the mother nursing the babies, videos, etc... Besides... breeders
can brag all they want, but is it the truth? A free whelping French Bulldog
is not something that is supposed to be the norm anyway in this BREED,
there is no shame in the dog needing a c-section.... I won't go into that
again, just read my reasons above.
ALL this said, please know there are Reputable Breeders abroad, just do
your research and know you are not going to pay $1500 for a puppy from
one of those Reputable kennels abroad. It's quite expensive to Import a
Quality French Bulldog Puppy from a Reputable and LEGIT European Show Kennel.
Also please know FCI Registration from Europe has nothing to do with the
AKC, there is a difference. and APRI and CKC (Continental Kennel Club)
are a joke to many people... just do your research.
break the cycle!
don't buy puppies from pet stores,
brokers or puppy mills.